Ernesto Hernandez-Hinojosa, Corinne D. Nawn, Carlyn Abbott, Daniel Astorga, Priya Jain, David Restrepo, R. Lyle Hood
Airway management is a priority to any caregiver in a trauma scenario. The current clinical gold standard for airway securement is endotracheal intubation (ETI), which involves placement of an endotracheal tube into patient tracheas and pneumatically expanding a cuff for securement. Incorrect performance of this delicate and complex procedure poses significant risks to patients, as excessive force and leverage during insertion can damage sensitive airway tissues, especially when performed by less-skilled providers or executed in difficult airway situations. The present study investigated the development of a bioinspired mechanical platform termed the Digital Extenders, which is capable of augmenting a provider’s reach for ETI. A prototype that could apply an output force of at least 20 N was designed for comparative analysis versus current clinical approaches. Performance analysis studies utilized an innovative instrumented mannequin model to compare force employed during intubation with the Digital Extenders versus direct laryngoscopy and digital intubation. Resulting data showed that there is an important reduction in applied force at the base of the tongue using the novel Digital Extenders platform; such a reduction of applied force is important in enabling the provider to secure the airway, causing less trauma to the patient. In addition, the use of the Digital Extender protects the provider’s digits from patient bite reactions typical from intubation when the patient is not sufficiently sedated. These study results motivate continued development of the Digital Extenders as a less traumatic approach to ETI. Future consideration may investigate challenges in mannequins’ biomimicry of physiological properties.